F. Pyke, 0. Becattini and W. Sengenberger
International Institute for Labor Studies
Whilst economies all over the world in the late 1970s and 1980s set into recession and stagnation, frequently accompanied by serious deteriorations in labour and social conditions, rising unemployment, and insecurity, a few localities stood out as exhibiting a remarkable resilience and even growth. They were engaged in a variety of industries, and included not only advanced sectors but also more traditional, labour-intensive ones, and thereby posed a challenge to those who have argued that such economic activities can no longer succeed in high wage industrialised countries. Thus, places like Oyonnax in France, Jutland in Denmark, Baden-Wurttemberg in the Federal Republic of Germany, Smâland in Sweden, the Barcelona area in Spain, Silicon Valley and around Los Angeles in the United States of America, Cambridge in England, parts of Japan, and areas of Central and North-East Italy, were highlighted as being localised economic constellations that 'were beating the recession.'